Branches of Botany.

morphology- study and description of different plant is fundamental requisite for classification of plants.
morphology is of 2 types:

1- external morphology

2-internal morphology

1-external morphology :study and description of external characters.

eg: root ; steam ; leaves; flowers ; fruits and seeds.

2-internal morphology :study of internal parts of plants .



-histology: study of different tiu=ssues or group of cells.

-anatomy -gross internal structure of plant organ .eg: root ; steam ; leaf.

3-cytology:cell biology

  • Master control of the cell is nucleus
  • Study of steucture and functions of cell is known as cytology .

  • 4- plant systematics or taxonomy : study of characterisation , identification,nomenclature and classification of plants into related groups based upon information from othee branches.

  • 5-palynology: study of development and structure of pollengrains or microspores.

  • 6-palaeobotany:study of fossil plants .

  • 7-genetics :study of structure ,synthesis of gene, inheritance and mutations .

  • 8-mutations: sudden change in genotype of organism

  • 9-phyto geography: geo graphical distribution of plants in the past and present.

  • 8- lichenology: lichen,symniontic association between algae and fungi to form new group of plants .

  • 9- bryology : study of bryophytes amphibians of the plant kingdom.

  • 10- pteridology : study of pteridophytes vascular cryptogams .
  • If plants produce flowers they are known as phanerogams
  • If plants doesnt produce flowers are known as cryptogams
  • Non flowering plants are algae,fungi. Bryophyte,pteridophyte.
  • Flowering plants are gymnosper!s and angiosperms.

  • 11-plant ecology: reciprocal relation between plants with their environment.

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